Transport of animals disease
Transport disease (road fever, road disease) is one of the common types of stress that occur in an animal during its transport in summer, rail, water or road. Get sick more often in-calf cow, at least the pigs and horses.
Etiology . Cause stressful conditions of animals is to transport them over large distances directly from the pasture without prior exposure them in their stalls and without preliminary preparing them for transportation. Most often transport the disease to be observed when transporting animals in the heat of the day and in conditions of high humidity.
Pathogenesis . An abrupt change in environment – a change of diet and lack of water, overcrowding, shaking and nausea, overheating, and the influence of other factors transportation causes in the body a disorder of the neuro — humoral regulation, which ultimately leads to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Additionally, when the traffic occur vertical and angular acceleration, but when driving on winding roads – centripetal (radial). These accelerations may exceed the threshold of physiological stimuli to the vestibular and otolith apparatus. Mechanical stimuli arising from the accelerations that affect proprioceptory on the internal organs, causing their partial displacement, circulation, which leads to the appearance of various reflexes, both somatic and autonomic nervous system, impaired colloid osmotic equilibrium in plasma and change its composition. In the blood there is a decrease of calcium and magnesium on the background of high content of potassium.
The change in electrolyte balance causing energy and functional changes in the activity of brain cells, especially cell membranes. The reduction of acetylcholinesterase activity leads to poisoning of the nervous system an excess of acetylcholine, which is one of the main reasons of disorder of its functions. Animals lose weight due to the loss of fluid and fat. Contribute to the development of stress insufficient content in the diet and blood calcium and magnesium, high potassium levels, emaciation and dehydration, deep pregnancy.
The clinical picture . The first symptoms of the disease appear in animals during transport or in the first 2-3 days after it. Transport the disease almost always occurs acutely. Affected animals show signs of excitement and anxiety, the animals try to move forward, when you post to note the shakiness and unsteady gait, loss of appetite. In severe cases of the disease can be observed mydriasis, tonic tension of masticatory muscles and of the extremities, involuntary urination and defecation, there is an increase in body temperature. Further, if a sick animal is not rendered timely medical aid he develops a coma and death.
The prognosis in mild cases favorable. In severe cases, the prognosis is cautious and even unfavorable.
Pathological changes maloharakterny. At autopsy of dead animals find petechial hemorrhages on serous tissues and mucous membranes, dystrophic changes of parenchymatous organs and skeletal muscles. The hyperemic vessels of the brain. In the cerebrospinal fluid to discover a lot of fibrinogen.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the collected anamnesis and clinical symptoms of the disease.
Differential diagnosis . For differential diagnosis veterinarians should first exclude acute infectious diseases (foot and mouth disease. anthrax. the pasteurellosis. lobar, pleuropneumonia, etc.), piroplasmosis, poisoning, heat stroke. hypomagnesia, maternity paresis. postpartum suleimania. ketosis .
Treatment . Treatment should first be aimed at eliminating overheating of the contributing factors in the cars and holds open the Windows, the animals pour cool water will provide cool drinking water, etc. Intravenously administered 10% solution of calcium chloride and sulphate of magnesia, under strong excitation is shown diphenhydramine, hydrochloride, tincture of Valerian. With cardiovascular disease administered glucose with caffeine, digitalis preparations, kordiamin, lobeline. When edema (the appearance auscultation of lungs wet it is large. medium fine bubble rales), horses once carried a moderate bloodletting (2-3 l of blood from the jugular vein), followed by intravenous injection of calcium chloride.
Prevention . Before transporting animals kept for 2-3 days in the stalls. During transportation protect animals from overheating and high humidity, the animals put along the car on the moving train. Pay attention to the serviceability of ventilation and drinking water supplies. Immediately prior to transportation and during the period of its herbivorous diet consists mainly of hay and feed with the addition of chalk and magnesium sulfate for 30-50g per head per day large animals. Animals in the last months of pregnancy to transport over long distances in the summer time it is impossible. During prolonged carriage by rail every 3-4 days stop over for a day to rest the animals, organize regular milking of the cows.